Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)
California IVF: Davis Fertility Center
PGD or preimplantation genetic diagnosis is an advanced reproductive technology that allows an infertility doctor and the embryologist to evaluate the embryo for genetic disorders. This is a new and cutting edge technology that is being used to treat infertility and prevent the transmission of certain genetic diseases to babies conceived through IVF. ICSI is usually used in combination with PGD. California IVF offers PGD as part of our comprehensive fertility treatments.
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis can help evaluate for genetic and chromosome problems that may exist in a pregnancy. By eliminating genetically abnormal embryos, a woman can increase her chances of having a happy and safe pregnancy. PGD, including FISH and CGH can test for the number of chromosomes within a cell taken from an embryo. This allows for specific diseases to be eliminated or abnormalities in the number of chromosomes to be avoided. This can help prevent recurrent pregnancy losses that may be due to chromosome or genetic problems. PGD is also used for gender selection to pick the sex of the baby when couples want to have a boy or a girl.
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) is the genetic testing of a single cell from an embryo prior to transfer of the embryo to the uterus. The analysis of an embryo can be performed when the cell of an embryo is removed by a process called Embryo Biopsy. This procedure is performed by the embryologist. Embryos can be analyzed for one or more of the following:
- Gender -The determination of whether an embryo is male or female.
- Aneuploidy - A condition in which there is an extra or missing chromosome. An example of aneuploidy is Down’s Syndrome. There is an increased incidence of aneuploidy as women age.
- Translocations - A change in chromosome structure in which chromosomes are attached to each other or pieces of different chromosomes have been interchanged.
- Single Gene Disorders - Disorders or diseases caused by the inheritance of a single mutated gene. Diseases such as Cystic Fibrosis, Tay Sachs, Alpha and Beta Thalassemia and Sickle Cell Anemia are examples of a mutated gene.
PGS - Pre implantation genetic screening is commonly used interchangeably with PGD. PGS is the more technically correct terminology though PGD was used initially to describe the various techniques of genetic testing of embryos to evaluate for chromosome numbers, genetic diseases, and causes of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), or repeated miscarriages. FISH and CGH are advanced technologies used to offer more hope to couples struggling with infertility.